After I decided to make public a telegram bot to monitor bus time in Dublin (@dublin_bus_bot). Before the release I became curious to see how many people will use it (spoiler: just an handful) and I thought that would be a good idea to track the use on google analytics.
Google analytics provide a measurement protocol that can be used to track things that are different from websites (mobile apps, IOT). At the moment no elixir client exists for this protocol (and it would not be anything more than an api wrapper). My plan is to make call to the Google Analytics TK endpoint with HTTPOison but I’d prefer to not have to call the tracking function for every single bot command.
One of the feature that I prefer of the elixir are macros, macros allow to generate code at compile time. I decided to define a macro that looking like a function definition would define a function with the same body and with an additional call to the track function. I decided this approach because seems more idiomatics than using the decorator syntax typical of other languages (
I implemented this approach in meter to use in the telegram bot I wrote.
Elixir macros are a powerful tool to abstract away some functionality or to write DSLs. They require a bit of time to wrap head around, in particular with the context swith, but it totally worth the hassle if you can reduce the clutter in your code base.
I’m building a bot for Telegram, once make a build with exrm I found myself some problem configuring the telegram api key using environment variables. I decided to share what I found because my google foo was not helpful at all.
config.exs is where the configuration of elixir project are added. The file is interpreted when a project is ran with
ies -S mix or
The values are retrieved during the lifetime of the application with the functions(get_env/3, fetch_env/2, fetch_env!/2) available in the module Application. To include values from the environment where the project is running System.get_env/1 is used.
Surprisingly (if you did not have an erlang background as me) when you make a release of your project with exrm the
config.exs file is executed at build time and the environment variables are crystallized in the build output.
The output from exrm contains a file named
sys.config that is the output of executing the
config.exs file and is defined as erlang terms. Once released editing this file is the only way to dynamically configure the application once built.
conform is a library from the same author of exrm and is been made to ease the configuration of elixir application. The library validate a property like file (
configuration/your_app.conf) against a configuration schema (
configuration/your_app.schema.exs) and generate the
sys.config file. The schema file contains descriptions, defaults, and types of the parameters. A property file is a lot easier and common to configure than a file containing erlang terms, additionaly conform add flexibility and more control over configurations.
A couple of task are made available to transition to a conform based configuration.
sys.config is generated at the start of the application, and using the plugin
exrm_conform at the start of a packaged application. This behaviour allow to load configuration parameter from environment variables defined when the application is started.
mix conform.new you will find a
yourapp.schema.exs in your
conf folder, this file has 3 main sections: mapping, transforms, and validators. The mapping section is where the parameters are defined and where you can set up defaults, descriptions, and type. The transform section allow to add transformation function to change or derive a configured parameter. In the end the validators sections allow to reject invalid configuration errors and stop the application.
At first I tried to add the reading from the environment variable to the default of the parameters, but this lend to an uncommon situation where a static parameter (the one in
yourapp.conf) will override a parameter derived from an environment variable.
Eventually I found that adding a function to transforms is probably a better way to do it.
In this case we are loading with the conform API the the configured value and return it only if the environment variable is empty. Generating the parameter in this way disallow to have a default in the mapping sections but a workaround would be to chain
|| to add a default value. I think that this approach is not bad for api key and similar values that you don’t want to checkin with your code (even if are keys of development environments).